What is Visa RDR (Rapid Dispute Resolution)?

Explore Visa RDR (Rapid Dispute Resolution), an automated solution for efficient pre-dispute chargeback handling and improved merchant-custo

Every merchant wants a quick resolution to chargeback disputes. However, the traditional process is a bit complicated and time-consuming.

A modern, automated tool to resolve disputes in the pre-dispute stage is needed to prevent chargebacks.

Visa provides a standardised platform to enable this.

Here’s what Visa Rapid Dispute Resolution (RDR) is, what it does, and how it works.

What is Visa RDR?

In 2020, Visa’s RDR (Rapid Dispute Resolution) was instituted through Verifi, a Visa acquisition. Since then, RDR has become mandated by Visa’s Business Enhancements Release (BER).

RDR service availability has expanded globally to cover the United States, Canada, Europe, Central Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific.

What does Visa RDR do?

The RDR platform allows merchants to predetermine which types of liability they are willing to accept. For instance, they may claim liability for transactions involving particular reason codes or those below a set price threshold.

A disputed transaction is immediately refunded if the RDR algorithm determines that the dispute falls under the merchant’s liability rules. With an automatic refund issued by the bank, a chargeback is no longer required. The dispute is resolved rapidly.

The dispute proceeds through regular channels if the merchant’s rules do not permit taking liability for the transaction.

What is RDR’s effect on Dispute Rates and Fees?

You should know at the outset that, under RDR, you may still technically “lose” a dispute. The customer’s complaint may be upheld, and you may incur a dispute fee.

But there is an upside to using RDR.

The loss of a dispute under RDR doesn’t count towards your overall dispute rate with Visa. Maintaining a low dispute rate is crucial to avoiding Visa’s monitoring programs. Your reputational standing is upheld. You are protected from the fees and negative consequences of entering a monitoring program.

More RDR Advantages

Because RDR is managed on the acquiring side, refunds are automated. This saves time and increases effectiveness.  Other card providers’ refunds, like Ethoca for Mastercard, must be processed manually.  Then, you are required to contact Ethoca about the refund. This takes time and can be more complicated. Mistakes are possible.

Also, RDR doesn’t rely solely on statement billing descriptors to identify transaction details. Billing descriptors can be misleading, incomplete, or simply wrong. Having more comprehensive transaction data to review the case results in fewer false positives, more robust reliability, faster resolution, and greater cost efficiency.

The Rapid Dispute Resolution process

Now, let’s look at the RDR process itself.

Here is a flowchart provided by Verifi, who developed RDR with Visa.


Let’s understand it better by walking through it.

The process is in several steps.

Cardholder Raises a Dispute

A cardholder raises a dispute with their issuing bank for many reasons. The issuing bank assigns a reason code to the dispute, describing its cause.

Issuing Bank Submits Dispute

The dispute is submitted to Visa Resolve Online (VROL, discussed later).

While RDR is designed for Visa cards, it also provides a mechanism for handling non-Visa card disputes. The merchant can respond to different card brands differently. The process can be paused to allow the merchant to decide how to handle the non-Visa card dispute.

RDR Eligibility Check

Any dispute must first be checked for RDR eligibility under Visa’s criteria. An automated yes-or-no determination is made.

Automatic Decisioning

RDR’s auto-decision rules are applied for eligible disputes to determine whether to resolve or decline the dispute request.

If the dispute is not eligible for RDR, VROL routes the dispute to the acquiring bank (the merchant’s bank).

Resolution or Further Processing

If the auto-decision rules resolve the dispute, the RDR process ends, and the acquirer is notified of the consequences.

If unresolved, the dispute is sent to the acquiring bank for further action.

Acquirer's Response

If RDR has resolved the dispute, the acquiring bank credits the issuer and the process ends there.

If not, then the claim escalates to the full dispute process.

Dispute Resolution

The dispute is eventually resolved through Rapid Dispute Resolution or a traditional dispute process.


The automated RDR system is designed to intercept and resolve eligible disputes quickly based on rules established by the merchant. This avoids the chargeback process for those transactions. The rest go through the traditional dispute process.

What is Visa Resolve Online (VROL)?

Visa Resolve Online (VROL) is Visa’s dispute management and resolution platform. It works with cardholders, issuers, and acquirers to resolve disputes, prevent chargebacks, and mitigate fraud.

Dispute Processing

VROL streamlines the communication process between parties during credit card disputes.

Disputes, like chargebacks and retrieval requests, are automated by VROL. A retrieval request requires the merchant to submit documentation about a transaction. Typical information submissions include copies of sales receipts and proof of delivery.

Real-Time Resolution

Expediting the dispute process in real-time significantly reduces the time needed to resolve a case. This benefits the cardholder, the merchant, and the banks.

Compliance with Visa Rules

Automating the dispute process helps ensure that all parties comply with Visa’s operating regulations.

Documentation and Evidence

The electronic exchange of information promotes rapid document and evidence submission, which are necessary for dispute resolution.

Integration with RDR

RDR is integrated into VROL. Automatic evaluation and resolution of eligible disputes are based on pre-defined rules. Manual processing is significantly reduced.

Reporting and Tracking

VROL offers many tools for reporting and tracking disputes. Issuers and acquirers gain visibility into the status of each case.

How Do I Access Visa RDR?

There are two primary ways to access RDR—manually and automated.

Dealing with RDR through Visa and Verifi is a primarily manual process. This is good for those needing unique controls or constraints or businesses automating their processes.

A much simpler way is to use a third-party service like ours,, that integrates with both Verifi (Visa) and Ethoca (Mastercard). Using intelligent Network Alerts, a merchant receives near-real-time notifications of potential disputes before they can become chargebacks.

In fact, ChargebackStop can help you avoid 99% of chargebacks. This is significant. With our simple dashboard approach, you only have to receive the alerts and click to tell the system how you want the transaction handled.

Looking Forward

You may still have questions about Visa RDR, ChargebackStop’s services, or anything chargeback-related.

Visit Our home page tells you how to contact us for answers or get a free demo. Or both!

FAQ: Visa RDR (Rapid Dispute Resolution)

What is Visa RDR?

Visa RDR (Rapid Dispute Resolution) is a fully automated dispute management solution provided by Visa in collaboration with Verifi. It aims to resolve unnecessary disputes at the pre-dispute stage, avoiding chargebacks and improving overall efficiency in dispute handling.

What types of disputes does Visa RDR cover?

RDR covers various types of disputes, including fraudulent or unauthorised transactions, processing errors, and consumer disputes.

What are the benefits of using Visa RDR?

Benefits include avoiding chargebacks, automated resolution without manual review, improved customer experience, and maintaining low dispute ratios.

How does RDR improve the dispute resolution process?

RDR automates and expedites the dispute resolution process, resolving disputes quickly and efficiently, often within 48 hours. This is significantly faster compared to traditional chargeback processes.

What is required to set up Visa RDR for a merchant?

Merchants need to define specific rules and parameters for dispute resolution. RDR uses these rules to decide on dispute resolutions automatically. The process can be simplified by using a third-party solution such as

About the author

Don is an expert technical content writer and researcher. He works with ChargebackStop to write informative and digestible content on the topic of chargebacks, payments and more. His writing is crafted, not computed.

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